The following are a selection of papers which I think are especially useful for further reading on specific topics. For the most part they are quite focused, and elaborate on some of the topics discussed in the pages on this website. The list is by no means exhaustive, and if you have any suggested papers which you think could find a place in this list, please feel free to suggest them to me either by email or in the comments below.
J. E. B. Randles, "Kinetics of rapid electrode reactions" - the original Randles circuit paper.
R. de Levie, "On porous electrodes in electrolyte solutions" - key fundamental work describing the original transmission line model for porous electrodes, diffusion within pores and charge transfer reactions within porous electrodes. (with thanks to Jeremy Meyers for the suggestion)
T. Jacobsen and K. West, "Diffusion impedance in planar, cylindrical and spherical symmetry" - derives the expressions for finite diffusion impedance in several different symmetries for both blocking (finite length) and non-blocking (finite space) cases.
J.-B. Jorcin et al., "CPE analysis by local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy" - research paper discussing the origins of constant phase element behaviour using a local impedance spectroscopy technique.
S. Buteau et al., "Explicit Conversion between Different Equivalent Circuit Models for Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of Lithium-Ion Cells" - discusses how different combinations of resistors and capacitors can give identical impedance spectra, how these can be converted between each other and what consequences this has for analysis. (with thanks to Ali Ansari for the suggestion)
J. E. Bauerle, "Study of solid electrolyte polarisation by a complex admittance method" - a classic paper on the use of impedance spectroscopy in solid state electrochemistry, applied here to oxide-conducting electrolytes. Discusses polarisation in terms of admittance (reciprocal of impedance), however.
B. A. Boukamp, "Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in solid state ionics: recent advances". - a very good short review on impedance spectroscopy analysis of solid materials, discussing fitting methods, K-K validation, finite diffusion, and some applied examples.
J. Jamnik, "Impedance spectroscopy of mixed conductors with semi-blocking boundaries" - research paper presenting an equivalent circuit model for polycrystalline mixed conducting materials (which includes many typical Li-ion battery materials).
M. D. Levi et al., "Application of finite diffusion models for the interpretation of chronoamperometric and electrochemical impedance responses of thin lithium insertion V2O5 electrodes" - research paper discussing the use of different finite diffusion circuit elements in modelling a thin film battery electrode).
R. Amin et al., "Aluminium-doped LiFePO4 single crystals Part I. Growth, characterisation and total conductivity" and "Part II. Ionic conductivity, diffusivity and defect model" - a nice two-part study on determining electronic and ionic conductivity in doped LiFePO4 crystals, making use of both blocking and non-blocking electrodes to distinguish the processes.
F. La Mantia et al., "Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries" - not focusing on impedance spectroscopy as such, but the issue of reference electrode selection is important for studies of battery materials.
J.-M. Atebamba, "On the interpretation of measured impedance spectra of insertion cathodes for lithium-ion batteries" - a research paper proposing equivalent circuit models for porous intercalation electrodes.
C. Bünzli et al., "Important aspects for reliable electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of Li-ion battery electrodes" - discussion of cell design considerations for EIS measurements on battery electrodes.
M. D. Levi et al., "Impedance spectra of energy storage electrodes obtained with commercial three-electrode cells: some sources of measurement artefacts" - further discussion of the importance of cell design for battery impedance analysis and sources of measurement error, through a comparison of three different commercial cell configurations.