Estimating energy density of batteries


This calculator estimates cell-level energy density for alkali-ion or alkali-metal batteries (e.g. Li-ion, Li metal, Na-ion, Mg-ion) based on specifications of the constituent parts. This calculator uses either the 18650 or 21700 form factors as the basis for the calculations. The default values for the positive and negative electrodes are based on the suggested baseline data for NMC532 vs graphite presented by Harlow et al, J. Electrochem. Soc. 166 (13) A3031-A3044 (2019). Adjust the values in the boxes below and press 'Go!' to calculate the results.

Cell type





current coll.


Mass breakdown

Cross-section schematic